Helium Leak Detection for Vacuum Brazing

vacuum brazing


Vacuum brazing is a soldering method performed in a vacuum environment to create robust, hermetic, and reliable joints. It offers numerous advantages. These include enhanced corrosion resistance, high-strength connections, excellent sealing properties, and remarkable resistance to high temperatures. Furthermore, it does not require complex flux cleaning processes, which ultimately reduces production costs.

However, during the vacuum brazing process, the presence of small defects or cracks on the material surface may result in gas leakage, affecting the quality of the brazing.

Therefore, to ensure the integrity and quality of vacuum brazed assemblies, helium leak detection plays a crucial role.

What is Vacuum Brazing

Vacuum brazing is a solid-state joining technique that employs capillary action to distribute filler metal between closely fitted metal parts. Unlike traditional brazing methods that rely on the use of a flux or protective atmosphere, vacuum brazing eliminates the presence of contaminants and oxides, resulting in clean, high-integrity joints. This technique is utilized in various industries, such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, and medical technology.

The process typically involves the following steps:

  • Preparation: The metal parts to be brazed are meticulously cleaned to remove any contaminants that could affect the brazing quality. This step ensures optimal surface contact between the materials.
  • Assembly: The cleaned parts are assembled in a precise manner to achieve the desired joint configuration. Fixtures or jigs may be used to hold the components in place during the brazing process.
  • Heating: The assembly is placed in a vacuum furnace, which is capable of reaching high temperatures. To achieve a strong bond, the temperature is carefully controlled. It ensures the uniform melting and even flow of the filler metal throughout the joint area.
  • Cooling: After the brazing cycle, the assembly is gradually cooled within the furnace to prevent thermal stresses and maintain the integrity of the joint.

Helium Leak Detection in Vacuum Brazing

Helium leak detection is a commonly used non-destructive testing method. It involves the use of helium gas as a tracer to detect any leaks or defects in the brazed joints. Helium, being a small, inert gas, can easily penetrate even the tiniest imperfections in the joints, making it an ideal choice for leak detection. It utilizes the low molecular weight and extremely small atomic radius of helium gas to penetrate into the interior of welded joints through small defects or cracks.

Once helium gas enters the joint, a helium leak detector can be used to detect any leakage of helium gas. If there is a leak, helium gas will escape from the defect in the joint and be detected by the helium leak detector. Notably, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector used for vacuum brazing employs a negative pressure mode. It can detect the smallest leak rate of 5×10-13 Pa∙m3/s.

helium leak detection

The detection process typically includes the following steps:

  • Pressurization: The brazed assembly is placed in a sealed chamber, and helium gas is introduced under controlled pressure. The pressure differential helps to identify any potential leak paths.
  • Sensing: Sensitive helium leak detectors or mass spectrometers are used to identify and quantify any helium gas that escapes from the assembly. These instruments can detect even minute quantities of helium, allowing for precise leak detection.
  • Analysis: The leak detector provides data on the location and size of leaks. This information helps engineers and technicians to pinpoint the specific areas that require attention and repair.

Benefits of Helium Leak Detection

  • Ensuring Quality and Reliability: Helium leak detection helps identify and eliminate leaks that could compromise the integrity and performance of brazed assemblies. By detecting even the smallest leaks, manufacturers can ensure the highest quality standards and deliver reliable products to customers.
  • Time and Cost Savings: Early detection and repair of leaks during the brazing process prevent costly rework or potential failures later in the product’s lifecycle. Additionally, helium leak detection allows for efficient troubleshooting and reduces the overall manufacturing time and costs.
  • Process Optimization: By identifying leak paths and weak joints, helium leak detection enables process optimization. As a result, manufacturers can refine their brazing techniques, adjust parameters, and enhance the quality of brazed joints, leading to improved productivity and performance.

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